The Use of Mixed Reality to Teach Healthcare Providers Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation:
A Mapping Review
Research question: The recent educational guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasize immersive technologies such as mixed reality (MR). According to the reality-virtuality continuum, MR is defined as a concept that encompasses both augmented reality and augmented virtuality. Immersive technologies improve the learning outcomes of healthcare providers in education through the simulation of various scenarios.
Methodology: This mapping review aims to present MR solutions for teaching CPR and assess the level of MR education effectiveness in the field of CPR education. In February 2022, we conducted a preliminary mapping review using Pubmed and Google Scholar. We excluded articles which focused only on virtual reality for CPR education. The Modified Kirkpatrick Model was used to evaluate the level of educational effectiveness in teaching CPR with MR.
Results: A total of 46 studies were identified and 9 full text studies were reviewed. MR solutions were generally developed for teaching healthcare providers adult CPR with automated external defibrillator (7/9, 78%). Only two MR solutions were developed for specific simulation scenarios like paediatric septic shock. In all studies, Level 1: Reaction (e.g., healthcare providers’ views on the learning experience) and Level 2: Learning (e.g., change in attitudes and modification of CPR knowledge or skills) were classified by the Modified Kirkpatrick Model. There were no Level 3: Behaviour (e.g., change in behaviours) and Level 4: Results (e.g., change in the system/organizational practice) in the reviewed studies.
Interpretation: Our results show that an MR learning environment could be an effective training tool for teaching healthcare providers CPR procedures. In the future, MR could replace traditional practices to save time and yield better performance, although more evidence is needed for MR to become a standard in CPR training.